Introduction As per SA 530, audit sampling refers to the application of auditing procedures to less than 100% of items within a population relevant under audit such that all the sampling units have an equal chance of selection. In simple words, sampling in auditing refers to the practice deriving aRead more
As per SA 530, audit sampling refers to the application of auditing procedures to less than 100% of items within a population relevant under audit such that all the sampling units have an equal chance of selection.
In simple words, sampling in auditing refers to the practice deriving a conclusion by the auditor about a population of data by evaluation of only a part or sample of the whole data. Population means a set of data.
Concept of sampling
We know, an audit involves inspection of financial information of an entity by an auditor to form an opinion on its financial statements. Now the financial information of a firm usually contains large volumes of data. For example, a firm may have entered into 50,000 purchase transactions in a year.
Now, checking each and every purchase transaction will cost both time and money. Also, nowadays, almost every enterprise have internal controls and automated accounting systems that are established to ensure accuracy and prevention of errors. Hence, a full-fledged inspection of each and every transaction is not worth the time and effort.
Instead, a wise thing to do is to take a sample from the whole volume of transactions or accounts and apply the auditing procedures to the sample. The results derived from the sample are then projected upon the whole volume of data. Samples are often taken using statistical methods to ensure that sample is taken randomly and represents the whole population of data in a true and unbiased manner.
Consideration regarding the population before audit sampling:
- The population is appropriate for the specific audit objective of the auditor
- It is from a reliable source to ensure sample reliability
- It is complete in terms of coverage of all relevant items throughout the period.
Irrespective of the method of sampling, the sample must represent the whole population closely.
Approaches to sampling
There are two approaches to sampling:
- Statistical Approach: It is a scientific way of ensuring that the sample is chosen randomly from data and represents the data in a true and unbiased way. It employs mathematical and statistical tools like the theory of probability and also considers sampling risk characteristics.
- Non-Statistical Approach: Under this approach, the auditor employs his personal experience to collect sample from the population. No mathematical tools are used but the personal judgement of the auditor regarding sampling. Sometimes, this approach may give satisfactory results depending upon the capability of the auditor. But in most cases, reliability is less compared to the statistical approach.
Introduction Audit refers to an independent examination of the financial information of any entity to express an opinion on the financial statements of the entity. An audit is conducted to ensure that the financial statements of the entity whose books of accounts are audited reflect a true and fairRead more
Audit refers to an independent examination of the financial information of any entity to express an opinion on the financial statements of the entity. An audit is conducted to ensure that the financial statements of the entity whose books of accounts are audited reflect a true and fair view of the affairs of the entity.
In audit reports, an auditor uses the term ‘true and fair’ is used to express that the financial statements are free from any kind of material misstatement and depict a correct financial image of the entity.
The term holds great significance in the audit reports of entities and auditors have to use this term carefully.
Meaning of ‘True’ and ‘Fair’
The term consists of two words, ‘True’ and ‘Fair’. Let’s understand what each of these words actually means.
The word ‘true’ suggests that the auditor, after examining the financial statements, has found no material misstatement whether due to error or fraud. The financial information depicted by the financial statements and the underlying accounting records is correct. The preparation and presentation of the financial statements are in accordance with the accounting standards applicable to the entity.
The word ‘fair’ means the financial information presented through the financial statement does not have an element of bias or sugar coating. There is a faithful presentation of financial information and the amounts at which the assets and liabilities, income and expenses and equity are shown is justified.See less